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3D Printing in the New Year

The new year begins with the CEO of a 3D printing company pleading for common sense over corruption when it comes to net neutrality.

Just hours after the FCC ruled to repeal Obama-era regulations regarding the internet, the New York Daily News ran an opinion piece by Tom Finn, CEO of 3D printing startup Shapeways.

Finn described the FCC’s decision as eliminating “net neutrality protections.  These protections have prevented internet service providers like Comcast and Charter from discriminating against websites or pushing internet users towards services that the ISPs own or that have paid for priority.”

Finn goes on to say: “one of the biggest losers of this decision will be startups like mine and the users who benefit from them…in the past, an innovative startup could challenge an established company by offering a better service.  Now, it would also need to figure out how to out-bid [tech giants] for advantageous internet access.”

Finn’s “company, Shapeways, gives anyone with an internet connection access to 3D printing technology.  [Shapeways allows] everyone to turn digital files into objects made of materials such as ultra-high-detail plastic, porcelain, steel, and even gold.  [Shapeways’] marketplace allows entrepreneurs and designers to open shops and sell those independently created, 3D printed objects to customers around the world.”

“Since every object is printed on demand, these shops allow creators to reach the whole online world without upfront cost or risk.  But [Shapeways – and other companies (and creators) like it] need a level playing field in order to be able to compete.”

Finn describes how without net neutrality protections, “ISPs would simply be able to wait for [Shapeways] to prove the viability of [its] model, and then create their own 3D printing services.  Once they have their own version of [Shapeways’] product, those ISPs could decide to block or throttle access to [Shapeways and companies like it], or even redirect traffic to their own services instead.”

Finn concludes: “The FCC’s vote…does not have to be the final word in this debate.  Congress can – and should – step in to protect net neutrality.  It could even do so in a bipartisan manner…[Shapeways, among many other tech companies,] are asking Congress to take the steps necessary to protect an open internet.  Congress needs to make clear it stands behind a fair, open internet, which ensures a level playing field for everyone.”

From the internet to the ancient world, 3D printing’s wide grasp knows no bounds:

As 3DPrint describes, in 2001, the Yungang Grottoes were included by UNESCO in its World Cultural Heritage list of historical sites.  The grottoes, located in the city of Datong in China northern Shanxi Province, “contain 252 caves and niches, and 51,000 carved statues, and are considered to be a classical Chinese masterpiece.”  Among the 1,500-year-old grottoes are three specific Buddhist statues.

Now, those three statues have been replicated using 3D printing.  These full-size replicas are currently on display in the coastal city of Qingdao.  This project was spearheaded by a one-billion-yuan investment by the Qingdao Publishing Group in conjunction with Zhejiang University and the Yungang Grottoes Research Institute.  “The middle replica is 10 meters tall, and the two 3D printed statues flanking it are six meters.”  Zhang Zhuo, Head of the Yungang Grottoes Research Institute marvels, “it’s hard to believe they are reproduced.  They look so real.”

This project has gone through two stages.  “Starting with planning, data acquisition, and processing, and moving on to structure design, large-scale 3D printing, construction, and assembly of the replicas, sandblasting, and light source design, and installation.”

The researchers “first built 3D models of the three statues, before reproducing them with 3D printing technology.”  As Zhejiang University’s Assistant to the Dean of Cultural Heritage, Diao Changyu, elaborates, “the color was first painted automatically by machines.  Then artists from Yungang added color in detail.”

Following the success of these three-3D printed Buddhist statue replicas, plans have now been made to reproduce two other caves from the Yungang Grottoes using 3D printing technology.

Replicating ancient statues may be fascinating…but do you know what’s even more fascinating?

3D printing with lasers.

New Atlas reports on the development of volumetric 3D printing.  This new super-fast 3D printing process was developed by a team at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

Volumetric 3D printing “uses hologram-like lasers to make complete objects in seconds inside a tank of liquid resin…[this] process overcomes many of the limitations of conventional additive manufacturing.”

These limitations include long print times, ridging, and temporary structures for support during the actual printing processes.  Volumetric 3D printing bypasses all this by creating “the entire object simultaneously.  [This occurs] by using three overlapping lasers beamed in a hologram-like pattern into a transparent tank filled with photosetting plastic resin.  A short exposure by a single beam isn’t enough to cure the resin in a short time, but combining three lasers can induce curing in about ten seconds.  After the object is formed, the excess resin is then drained off to reveal the complete unit.”

So far, the researchers have used volumetric 3D printing to produce “squares, beams, [geometric] planes, struts at arbitrary angles, lattices, and complex, curved objects.”   However, the team points out this processes’ limitations when it comes to producing more complex shapes with higher resolutions.  “The hope is the development of more responsive polymers will not only allow for larger objects with higher resolution, but also the printing of objects out of ultralightweight hydrogels.  In addition, volumetric 3D printing works in weightlessness, making it useful for manufacturing aboard spacecraft.”

As LLNL Engineer Chris Spadaccini concludes: “[The development of volumetric 3D printing is] a demonstration of what the next generation of additive manufacturing may be.  Most 3D printing and additive manufacturing technologies consist of either a one-dimensional or two-dimensional unit operation.  This moves fabrication to a fully 3D operation, which has not been done before.  The potential impact on throughput could be enormous and if you can do it well, you can still have a lot of complexity.”

Finally, once again, we circle back to the government – and how it may affect the realm of 3D printing.

Health Data Management caught wind of guidance recently released by the FDA in regard to the future of the 3D printing industry.

This guidance was mostly aimed at the manufacturers of 3D printed devices.  As Health Data Management was quick to point out, “[3D printing] is increasingly being used by radiologists and other medical professionals, typically to build accurate anatomical models that prepare clinicians and patients for surgery.  However, there are growing indications that the technology will eventually come into play not only in radiological procedures but also in treating patients.”

FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, MD, explained the reasoning behind the recent release of his agency’s guidance: “the FDA is now preparing for a significant wave of new technologies that are nearly certain to transform medical practice.  We’re working to provide a more comprehensive regulatory pathway that keeps pace with those advances, and helps facilitate efficient access to safe and effective innovations that are based on thee technologies.”

In order to guide 3D printed device manufacturers in a productive manner, the FDA “reviewed more than 100 3D printer-manufactured devices currently on the market and has approved the first drug made on a 3D printer.”

Gottlieb continues: “we envision burn patients in the near future will be treated with their own new skin cells 3D printed directly onto their burn wounds.  Further down the road, there is potential for the same technology to eventually be used to develop replacement organs.”

The FDA’s new 3D printing guidance “is intended to advise device manufacturers on the technical aspects of 3D printing, as well as what information they should include on submissions for developing 3D printed medical devices.  This guidance includes FDA thinking on approaches to 3D printing such as device design, functional testing of products, durability of products, and quality system requirements.”

What will next month have in store for the wacky world of 3D printing?

Image Courtesy of New Atlas

Quotes Courtesy of the New York Daily News, Shapeways, 3DPrint, New Atlas, Health Data Management

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UNIZ Launches Five More 3D Printing Products

Digital Journal has caught wind of an incoming announcement to be made at this year’s CES event in Las Vegas at the beginning of January.  UNIZ, who are makers of the “World’s Fastest Desktop 3D Printer” are to announce five more 3D Printing products.

“UNIZ took the 3D printing world by storm in 2016 when they debuted the SLASH – A game-changing, high performance, affordable, LCD-SLA 3D Printer at CES. It was a highlight of the show, a revolutionary desktop printer that outperformed competitors in speed and detail, delivering professional level quality at a price that put the power of 3D printing into the hands of consumers.”

“SLASH [apparently] became the fastest desktop 3D printer ever made, capable of reaching printing speeds of 1000 cc/hr while maintaining incredible detail, with resolutions on the Y and X axis as fine as 2560 x 1600, 339 ppi and 75 μm utilizing ultra-fast LCD Stereolithography (SLA light-curing) technology. When it was released to the public via Kickstarter, [UNIZ] achieved more than 10 times their funding goal and raised over $500,000 dollars in a month.”

Now, however, UNIZ will be launching three new desktop 3D printers along with two new industrial 3D printers.  These printers are the SLASH+, SLASH OL, SLASH PRO, zSLTV15, and zSLTV23.

As one could guess, the SLASH+ is an upgrade to the original SLASH 3D printer.  The SLASH OL, or SLASH Online 3D printer “is a perfect solution for consumers in the sub $1000 FDM market, who are not satisfied with the FDM’s poor printing quality, slow speed, and low reliability.”  As for the SLASH PRO, this printer is aimed at “professionals who needed the extended build envelope in a desktop setup.”  The SLTV15 and 23 are UNIZ’s new industrial 3D printers.

This brand new “suite of UNIZ 3D printer solutions sets new benchmarks for speed, quality, and price for consumers and professionals alike.”

Image and Quotes Courtesy of Digital Journal and UNIZ

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MIT Creates Laser 3D Printer

Designboom reports on a startling new additive manufacturing breakthrough, which has occurred in labs at MIT.  Engineers there have successfully created a new super fast desktop 3D printer.  Apparently, this desktop 3D printer is capable of performing “ten times faster than existing commercial counterparts.”

Other desktop 3D printers may be capable of fabricating “a few LEGO-sized bricks in one hour, whereas [MIT’s new desktop 3D printer design] can print similarly sized objects in just a few minutes.”

How can this be possible, you may ask?

Well, MIT’s new desktop 3D printer features a compact printhead boasting “two speed-enhancing components: a screw mechanism feeding polymer material through a nozzle at high force; and a laser…rapidly heating and melting the material, enabling it to flow faster through the nozzle.”

In order to demonstrate their new technological breakthrough, the MIT engineers had their high-speed laser desktop 3D printer fabricate “various detailed, handheld 3D objects, including small eyeglass frames, and a bevel gear – each, from start to finish, within several minutes.”

MIT’s Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering Anastosios John Hart concluded his team’s breakthrough 3D printer shines a light on the “potential for 3D printing to become a more viable production technique.”

In Professor Hart’s own words, “if I can get a prototype part, maybe a bracket or a gear, in five to ten minutes rather than the next day, I can engineer, build, and test faster.  If I’m a repair technician and I could have a fast 3D printer in my vehicle, I could 3D print a repair part on-demand after I figure out what’s broken.  I don’t have to go to a warehouse and take it out of inventory.”

Truly, this 3D printer will speed up the entire manufacturing chain.

Image and Quotes Courtesy of Designboom

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Stratasys Opens ‘3D Printing Center of Excellence’ at Children’s Hospital

3DPrint reports on another successful Stratasys launch.  Stratasys has opened a ‘3D Printing Center of Excellence’ at SSM Health Cardinal Glennon Children’s Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri.

Cardinal Glennon, a “Best Children’s Hospital,” according to US News and World Report, “has been working with 3D printing for a while, namely a Stratasys J750 multi-color, multi-material 3D printer.”

Stratasys’ new ‘3D Printing Center of Excellence’ will allow Cardinal Glennon’s staff to innovate “in multiple 3D printing-related medical areas, including pre-surgical preparation, medical research, and patient treatment.  Areas of focus include neurosurgery, orthopedics, cardiac treatment, and hand & cranio maxillofacial reconstructive surgery.”

Cardinal Glennon’s President, Steven Burghart, elaborated further: “as a leading pediatric care and academic research facility, we’re committed to continuous improvement by harnessing cutting-edge tools like 3D printing.  The Stratasys J750 full-color, multi-material 3D printing solution allows us to do just that – powering unprecedented breakthroughs in planning and treatment.  Our Center of Excellence stems from a long-standing partnership with Stratasys, working together to raise the bar in all that’s possible in patient care.”

Alexander Lin, MD, who is a plastic surgeon and Co-Founder of the ‘3D Printing Center of Excellence’ added: “3D printing provides increased confidence in the operating room and results in a faster, more efficient operation.  In a recent plastic surgery reconstruction of a skull defect, we used a 3D printed intraoperative guide, which matched the skull precisely.  Without hesitation, we could use this guide to create a precisely shaped bone graft perfectly matching the skull defect.  In the past, this process would have been estimated, which can lead to longer surgery with higher risk of brain and blood loss, and a less precisely fitted reconstruction.”

GM of Healthcare Solutions at Stratasys, Scott Rader, concluded: “numerous advances have expanded treatment options for patients, particularly those who need highly advanced medical care.  Stratasys depends on our clinical partners to demonstrate patient benefit using 3D printing in training and the flow of patient care.  To fully realize Dr. Lin’s vision of optimizing treatment, there needs to be greater collaboration between industry and thought leading institutions to create standards, best-practices, and to develop the fact base on how to get the most from a hospital-based 3D printing program.  Led by some of the industry’s most respected medical professionals and backed by Stratasys technology, SSM Health Cardinal Glennon Children’s Hospital’s new Center of Excellence will quickly become the gold standard demonstrating everything possible with medical 3D printing.”

Image and Quotes Courtesy of 3DPrint and Stratasys

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Desktop Metal Delivers First Studio 3D Printing System

TCT Magazine reports on the recent delivery of Desktop Metal’s new Studio System 3D printing machines “to early pioneer customers including Google’s Advanced Technology and Products (ATAP) group.”

These Studio System 3D printers were only announced eight months ago, but the delivery is part of Desktop Metal’s Pioneers Program rollout.  Google’s ATAP group is very excited.  As David Beardsley, the group’s Manager explains, “this marks the first time our team will be able to use metal 3D printing for rapid prototyping of our hardware parts.  For prototyping, we have previously relied upon casting or using plastic 3D printing.  Now with the Studio System, our team will experience shorter lead times, faster product development cycles, and the benefits of functional prototypes in an array of metals on demand and in the lab.  We look forward to exploring and developing potential applications for many of our projects.”

The Studio System is office-friendly and includes a metal 3D printer, debinder, and sintering furnace, “and is said to be 10 times less expensive than existing technology today.”

CEO and Co-Founder of Desktop Metal, Ric Fulop, concluded: “Since the launch of our Pioneers Program, we have seen really passionate engineers and world-class companies begin to develop benchmark metal 3D printed parts with the Studio System.  We are extremely excited to begin shipping our Studio printer to these early pioneer customers and sales partners, including Google’s ATAP, and, over the next several months, will be working closely with each to learn more about how engineers want to use our system.”

Image and Quotes Courtesy of TCT Magazine

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HP to Bring 3D Printing Tech to India Q1 2018

The Economic Times has reported a further expansion for HP in the 3D printing market.  Two years ago, HP launched their 3D printing tech globally.  Now, in Q1 2018, HP plans to launch their 3D printing tech into India.

As HP Inc. India’s Managing Director Sumeer Chandra explains, HP is launching its 3D printing tech into India much earlier than the company had originally anticipated: “there is a lot of talk about Industrial 4.0, which is a new way to describe the manufacturing transformation that’s going to happen, and it will be enabled by the internet of things, cognitive computing, and cloud.  One of the key pillars of it will be 3D printing.”

“Globally, we are working with companies like Johnson & Johnson to print 3D parts that can be inserted in the human body – like an artificial hip or a dental implant.  Initially, HP will offer 3D plastic printers and we will introduce metal 3D printing whenever it is available.”

Specifically, HP will be launching their Multijet Fusion 3D Printer into the Indian market.  The Multijet Fusion 3D Printer is capable of printing “plastic parts – body implants, car panels, and manufacturing prototypes.”

Already, HP’s Multijet Fusion 3D Printer has been sold in markets such as Australia, China, and Japan.  “The starting price for such devices is $100,000 (approx. Rs 65 lakh), although HP declined to discuss any India-specific pricing at present.”

Image and Quotes Courtesy of The Economic Times

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FDA Releases Guidance on 3D Printing

Health Data Management caught wind of guidance recently released by the FDA in regard to the future of the 3D printing industry.

This guidance was mostly aimed at the manufacturers of 3D printed devices.  As Health Data Management was quick to point out, “[3D printing] is increasingly being used by radiologists and other medical professionals, typically to build accurate anatomical models that prepare clinicians and patients for surgery.  However, there are growing indications that the technology will eventually come into play not only in radiological procedures but also in treating patients.”

FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, MD, explained the reasoning behind the recent release of his agency’s guidance: “the FDA is now preparing for a significant wave of new technologies that are nearly certain to transform medical practice.  We’re working to provide a more comprehensive regulatory pathway that keeps pace with those advances, and helps facilitate efficient access to safe and effective innovations that are based on thee technologies.”

In order to guide 3D printed device manufacturers in a productive manner, the FDA “reviewed more than 100 3D printer-manufactured devices currently on the market and has approved the first drug made on a 3D printer.”

Gottlieb continues: “we envision burn patients in the near future will be treated with their own new skin cells 3D printed directly onto their burn wounds.  Further down the road, there is potential for the same technology to eventually be used to develop replacement organs.”

The FDA’s new 3D printing guidance “is intended to advise device manufacturers on the technical aspects of 3D printing, as well as what information they should include on submissions for developing 3D printed medical devices.  This guidance includes FDA thinking on approaches to 3D printing such as device design, functional testing of products, durability of products, and quality system requirements.”

Image Courtesy of the FDA

Quotes Courtesy of Health Data Management

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MakeX Launches 3D Printing Backpack

Tech Crunch reports on an interesting marketing twist an additive manufacturing company has developed in order to sell a portable 3D printer.

MakeX is attempting to sell their new Migo 3D Printer.  This printer “is fairly standard.  It prints ABS or PLA plastic and includes modeling software.  It weighs about 4 pounds and has a 100x120x100 mm build envelope which means you can print things like smaller action figures and other fun models.”

So, in order to spice things up, MakeX is also launching a backpack alongside this Migo 3D Printer.  This translucent backpack “is designed to hold a Migo 3D Printer…the backpack fits the Migo perfectly and offers the maximum visibility for your 3D printer thanks to the clear hardshell outer casing.”

Interestingly, the Migo 3D Printer was launched via Kickstarter.  A very successful Kickstarter campaign, we might add, far surpassing its initial $100,000 goal.  MakeX also claims their Migo 3D Printer is “the smallest portable 3D printer.”  Additionally, the Migo 3D Printer boasts a minimalist design, is wi-fi-enabled, has a built-in camera, and one-button operation.

“Migo is equipped with TYPE-C, normally only used in high precision desktop 3D printers.  [MakeX] consolidated the extruder head’s power cord, signal cable, and other components into a single Type-C.  This lets you plug-in and instantly print.”

Aspiring makers who wish to purchase the Migo 3D Printer can pay $219.  The Migo’s backpack is a $70 add-on.

Image Courtesy of MakeX

Quotes Courtesy of MakeX and Tech Crunch

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US Army and Marines Developing On-Demand 3D Printed Drones

CNET reports on US Army and Marines development concerning on-demand 3D printed drones.  The military has even produced a documentary along with this announcement.

Back in December, “the US Army shared a look at a custom-printed, on-demand aerial drone program, allowing Army and Marine forces to create flying machines built for specific missions.”

The Army has described this sort of 3D printed drone as a “3D printed aviation asset.  Army researchers have already tested prototype 3D printed drones and are looking to further develop and expand the program.  The experimental drones are modular and can be assembled quickly…the Army envisions an almost Amazon-like catalog interface where you choose your drone from a selection of options.  Eventually, soldiers would be able to customize individual parts of the drone to fit the mission.”

Within the documentary (released by the US Army Research Laboratory), Engineer Jolie Frketic explains certain obstacles in this program’s future: “as a researcher, I’d like to improve the speed of the print or the strength of the part itself.”

Despite these needed improvements (which will inevitably be incorporated into the process), this modular 3D printed drone program for the United States military will be a boon to “warfighters” interested in minimizing risks in battlefield and other mission-based situations.

Image, Video, and Quotes Courtesy of CNET and the US Army Research Laboratory

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Shapeways CEO Argues for Net Neutrality

Just hours after the FCC ruled to repeal Obama-era regulations regarding the internet, the New York Daily News ran an opinion piece by Tom Finn, CEO of 3D printing startup Shapeways.

Finn described the FCC’s decision as eliminating “net neutrality protections.  These protections have prevented internet service providers like Comcast and Charter from discriminating against websites or pushing internet users towards services that the ISPs own or that have paid for priority.”

Finn goes on to say: “one of the biggest losers of this decision will be startups like mine and the users who benefit from them…in the past, an innovative startup could challenge an established company by offering a better service.  Now, it would also need to figure out how to out-bid [tech giants] for advantageous internet access.”

Finn’s “company, Shapeways, gives anyone with an internet connection access to 3D printing technology.  [Shapeways allows] everyone to turn digital files into objects made of materials such as ultra-high-detail plastic, porcelain, steel, and even gold.  [Shapeways’] marketplace allows entrepreneurs and designers to open shops and sell those independently created, 3D printed objects to customers around the world.”

“Since every object is printed on demand, these shops allow creators to reach the whole online world without upfront cost or risk.  But [Shapeways – and other companies (and creators) like it] need a level playing field in order to be able to compete.”

Finn describes how without net neutrality protections, “ISPs would simply be able to wait for [Shapeways] to prove the viability of [its] model, and then create their own 3D printing services.  Once they have their own version of [Shapeways’] product, those ISPs could decide to block or throttle access to [Shapeways and companies like it], or even redirect traffic to their own services instead.”

Finn concludes: “The FCC’s vote…does not have to be the final word in this debate.  Congress can – and should – step in to protect net neutrality.  It could even do so in a bipartisan manner…[Shapeways, among many other tech companies,] are asking Congress to take the steps necessary to protect an open internet.  Congress needs to make clear it stands behind a fair, open internet, which ensures a level playing field for everyone.”

Image and Quotes Courtesy of the New York Daily News and Shapeways

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3D Printing Replicates Historic Buddhist Statues in China

As 3DPrint describes, in 2001, the Yungang Grottoes were included by UNESCO in its World Cultural Heritage list of historical sites.  The grottoes, located in the city of Datong in China northern Shanxi Province, “contain 252 caves and niches, and 51,000 carved statues, and are considered to be a classical Chinese masterpiece.”  Among the 1,500-year-old grottoes are three specific Buddhist statues.

Now, those three statues have been replicated using 3D printing.  These full-size replicas are currently on display in the coastal city of Qingdao.  This project was spearheaded by a one-billion-yuan investment by the Qingdao Publishing Group in conjunction with Zhejiang University and the Yungang Grottoes Research Institute.  “The middle replica is 10 meters tall, and the two 3D printed statues flanking it are six meters.”  Zhang Zhuo, Head of the Yungang Grottoes Research Institute marvels, “it’s hard to believe they are reproduced.  They look so real.”

This project has gone through two stages.  “Starting with planning, data acquisition, and processing, and moving on to structure design, large-scale 3D printing, construction, and assembly of the replicas, sandblasting, and light source design, and installation.”

The researchers “first built 3D models of the three statues, before reproducing them with 3D printing technology.”  As Zhejiang University’s Assistant to the Dean of Cultural Heritage, Diao Changyu, elaborates, “the color was first painted automatically by machines.  Then artists from Yungang added color in detail.”

Following the success of these three 3D printed Buddhist statue replicas, plans have now been made to reproduce two other caves from the Yungang Grottoes using 3D printing technology.

Image and Quotes Courtesy of 3DPrint

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Volumetric 3D Printing

New Atlas reports on the development of volumetric 3D printing.  This new super-fast 3D printing process was developed by a team at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

Volumetric 3D printing “uses hologram-like lasers to make complete objects in seconds inside a tank of liquid resin…[this] process overcomes many of the limitations of conventional additive manufacturing.”

These limitations include long print times, ridging, and temporary structures for support during the actual printing processes.  Volumetric 3D printing bypasses all this by creating “the entire object simultaneously.  [This occurs] by using three overlapping lasers beamed in a hologram-like pattern into a transparent tank filled with photosetting plastic resin.  A short exposure by a single beam isn’t enough to cure the resin in a short time, but combining three lasers can induce curing in about ten seconds.  After the object is formed, the excess resin is then drained off to reveal the complete unit.”

So far, the researchers have used volumetric 3D printing to produce “squares, beams, [geometric] planes, struts at arbitrary angles, lattices, and complex, curved objects.”   However, the team points out this processes’ limitations when it comes to producing more complex shapes with higher resolutions.  “The hope is the development of more responsive polymers will not only allow for larger objects with higher resolution, but also the printing of objects out of ultralightweight hydrogels.  In addition, volumetric 3D printing works in weightlessness, making it useful for manufacturing aboard spacecraft.”

As LLNL Engineer Chris Spadaccini concludes: “[The development of volumetric 3D printing is] a demonstration of what the next generation of additive manufacturing may be.  Most 3D printing and additive manufacturing technologies consist of either a one-dimensional or two-dimensional unit operation.  This moves fabrication to a fully 3D operation, which has not been done before.  The potential impact on throughput could be enormous and if you can do it well, you can still have a lot of complexity.”

Image and Quotes Courtesy of New Atlas

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